This is a guide to the LaTeX typesetting system. It is intended as a useful resource for everybody, from new users who wish to learn, to old hands who need a quick reference. It takes a "plain" text file and converts it into a high-quality document for printing or on-screen viewing. LaTeX is a macro system built on top of TeX that aims to simplify its use and automate many common formatting tasks. It is the de-facto standard for academic journals and books, and provides some of the best typography free software has to offer.
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The standard point size used in most modern computer programs known as the desktop publishing point or PostScript point has 1 pt equal to approximately 0. This is because these older engines only support a fixed set of sizes - between 5 and 17 point.
When he designed Computer Modern, Knuth created individual font files for these sizes, each with stroke widths and spacing optimized for that particular size. To avoid distorting them, scaling these fonts is disabled by default. This issue is avoided when using lualatex or xelatex, which use Latin Modern - a vectorized version of Computer Modern - as the default font family.
This still provides individual files at each of the original optical sizes , but will automatically scale the closest one when asked for an arbitrary size. The fontspec package is extremely configurable. See the manual  for details, but some basics are covered below. Selecting font files[ edit ] Different weights and styles of a given typeface are usually stored as separate font files.
A typical typeface might offer four files to represent its normal weight, italics, bold, and bold italics. However, many typefaces come in more than two weights—some versions of Futura , for example, comes in light, book, medium, demi, bold, and extra bold weights. Sometimes small caps are stored as separate files as well. We might want to hand-pick weights to achieve a certain look or better match the weights of other fonts in our document. Controlling font features[ edit ] The OpenType OTF format allows type designers to embed font features that can be turned on and off, such as: Alternate versions of glyphs Lining and "oldstyle" figures, each with tabular and proportional spacing  Up to three sets of ligatures : standard, contextual, and historical Superscript and subscript glyphs Small caps in the same file as the standard upper and lowercase characters All of these features can be turned on and off using different fontspec options.
See the discussion of encoding below. Useful resources for latex and pdflatex font configuration include:.
Manual de LaTeX
Floats[ edit ] Floats are containers for things in a document that cannot be broken over a page. LaTeX by default recognizes "table" and "figure" floats, but you can define new ones of your own see Custom floats below. Floats are not part of the normal stream of text, but separate entities, positioned in a part of the page to themselves top, middle, bottom, left, right, or wherever the designer specifies. They always have a caption describing them and they are always numbered so they can be referred to from elsewhere in the text.
LaTeX/Floats, Figures and Captions
It is even possible that lower-case letters may need to be preserved - for example if a chemical formula is used in a style that sets a title in all caps or small caps, or if "pH" is to be used in a style that capitalises all first letters. The approach of putting only relevant text in curly brackets is the most feasible if using a template under the control of a publisher, such as for journal submissions. Using curly braces around single letters is also to be avoided if possible, as it may mess up the kerning, especially with biblatex,  so the first step should generally be to enclose single words in braces. A few additional examples[ edit ] Below you will find a few additional examples of bibliography entries. The first one covers the case of multiple authors in the Surname, Firstname format, and the second one deals with the incollection case. Karam and Drake, John W. Bibliography styles are files recognized by BibTeX that tell it how to format the information stored in the.
One is that it will not automatically wrap text in cells, even if it overruns the width of the page. For a more convenient method, have a look at The tabularx package , or The tabulary package. Instead of p, use the m attribute to have the lines aligned toward the middle of the box or the b attribute to align along the bottom of the box. Here is a simple example. However, the strong breeze will bring down the temperatures. Clear spells across most of Scotland and Northern Ireland, but rain reaching the far northwest. Conditions will improve by early afternoon and continue throughout the evening.
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