Early life[ edit ] Munshi Premchand was born on 31 July in Lamhi , a village located near Varanasi Benares and was named Dhanpat Rai "master of wealth". His ancestors came from a large Kayastha family, which owned eight to nine bighas of land. When he was 8, his mother died after a long illness. His grandmother, who took the responsibility of raising him, died soon after. His father, who was now posted at Gorakhpur, remarried, but Premchand received little affection from his stepmother. He took the job of selling books for a book wholesaler, thus getting the opportunity to read a lot of books.
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Dhanpat Rai Srivastava, sub-deputy inspector of schools in what was then the United Provinces, was hauled up by the District Magistrate in Jamirpur. All copies were burnt. Did Dhanpat Rai submit to the British diktat?
On the contrary, he continued as usual, unflagging in his commitment to purposive writing. And that is how the world has since known the doyen nonpareil of Hindi literature. And, what according to him, is this most precious jewel? If, for Jean-Paul Sartre, writing was an act of faith, for Premchand it was an all-consuming passion.
Literature, said Premchand, should instil in us dynamism, not sleep, which is a sign of death. Not everyone is in agreement that literature is a weapon for change, an agent of reform. A Gandhian, communist, and ruralist, he drew deeply from his experience of the village, and knowing well the agony of failure and frustration, he chronicled with rare sensitivity the lives of a varied cast of characters from the landless labourer to the decadent nawab.
Born on July 31, in Lamahi near Banaras, he was orphaned soon after. His first marriage was a disaster, but he thumbed his nose at convention the second time round by marrying a child widow. He resigned from his government job to support the Gandhian movement, and worked variously as the proprietor of a printing press, editor of literary and political journals Jagran and Hans , and briefly and unpalatably, as the script writer for the Bombay film world. Idealism creeps into the plots I conceive and I am told there is no entertainment value in them.
He left behind, after a life span of 56 full years, a literary output as voluminous as it was varied: odd short stories, several novels, countless essays, letters, plays and translations. The peasantry occupied centrestage. In the short story Sadgati Salvation , the poor and underfed Dukkhi dies of exhaustion while hewing wood for a paltry favour, his corpse is disposed of surreptitiously.
The decadence of nawabi Lucknow was immortalised in Shatranj ke Khilari The Chess Players , where the obsession with a game consumes the players, making them oblivious of their responsibilities in the midst of a historical crisis. Both stories have been superbly filmed by Satyajit Ray. In Kafan Shroud , he showed how the poor could also be lazy and callous. A young and needy villager collects money for the funeral rites of his dead wife only to spend the amount, in a moment of moral vacuity, on food and drink.
Premchand is best remembered for Godan Gift Of A Cow , his last novel, whose protagonist Hori represents the perennially impoverished peasant, victim as much to the moneylender as to his own rigid adherence to irrational customs.
What Hori longs for, above all else, is to own a cow, the symbol or rural wealth, and pays with his life for it. But it must be remembered that with Prem chand the message was the dominating concern.
The story had to be told of ordinary people with their mundane problems, faithfully and without embellishment. Premchand did this with integrity and remarkable insight, drawing deeply from his own experiences in a society where he had to struggle for three years to pay back a loan of two-and-a-half rupees which he borrowed to buy himself some clothes.
premchand ki kahani and premchand ki kahaniya in hidi
Dhanpat Rai Srivastava, sub-deputy inspector of schools in what was then the United Provinces, was hauled up by the District Magistrate in Jamirpur. All copies were burnt. Did Dhanpat Rai submit to the British diktat? On the contrary, he continued as usual, unflagging in his commitment to purposive writing. And that is how the world has since known the doyen nonpareil of Hindi literature.
कहानी ईदगाह: ईद के मौके पर पढ़िए, मुंशी प्रेमचंद की मशहूर कहानी
मुंशी प्रेमचंद की कहानी – सद्गति | Munshi Premchand Story in Hindi