Haldane was an evolutionary biologist who made many contributions to the field of evolution. The Haldane family was well off and valued education beginning at an early age. He also learned genetics by breeding guinea pigs as a child. He obtained his M.

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His father John Scott Haldane c. His younger sister, Naomi Mitchison , became a writer, and his uncle was Viscount Haldane and his aunt the author Elizabeth Haldane. Descended from an aristocratic and secular family [11] of the Clan Haldane , he would later claim that his Y chromosome could be traced back to Robert the Bruce.

From age eight he worked with his father in their home laboratory where he experienced his first self-experimentation , the method he would later be famous for. He and his father became their own "human guinea pigs", such as in their investigation on the effects of poison gases.

In his family moved to "Cherwell", a late Victorian house at the outskirts of Oxford with its own private laboratory. In he joined Eton, where he experienced severe abuse from senior students for allegedly being arrogant. The indifference of authority left him with a lasting hatred for the English education system. However, the ordeal did not stop him from becoming Captain of the school.

He studied mathematics and classics at New College at the University of Oxford and obtained first-class honours in mathematical moderations in and first-class honours in Greats in He became engrossed in genetics and presented a paper on gene linkage in vertebrates in the summer of His first technical paper, a page long article on haemoglobin function, was published that same year, as a co-author alongside his father. He relinquished his commission on 1 April , retaining his rank of captain. He then moved to the University of Cambridge , where he accepted a readership in Biochemistry and taught until So that they could marry, Charlotte divorced her husband, Jack Burghes, causing some controversy.

Haldane was almost dismissed from Cambridge for the way he handled his meeting with her. They married in Following their separation in , the Haldanes divorced in Later that year he married Helen Spurway. One experiment to study elevated levels of oxygen saturation triggered a fit which resulted in him suffering crushed vertebrae. But, as Haldane stated in What is Life, [25] "the drum generally heals up; and if a hole remains in it, although one is somewhat deaf, one can blow tobacco smoke out of the ear in question, which is a social accomplishment.

Officially he stated that he left the UK because of the Suez Crisis , writing: "Finally, I am going to India because I consider that recent acts of the British Government have been violations of international law. He declared he would no longer wear socks, "Sixty years in socks is enough. He wrote to Julian Huxley about his observations on Vanellus malabaricus, the yellow-wattled lapwing. He advocated the use of Vigna sinensis cowpea as a model for studying plant genetics.

He took an interest in the pollination of Lantana camara. He lamented that Indian universities forced those who took up biology to drop mathematics. In January he befriended Gary Botting , U.

National Science Fair winner in botany , inviting him to share the results of his experiments hybridising Antheraea silk moths. After the two students had left the hotel, Haldane went on his much-publicized hunger strike to protest what he regarded as a "U. Mahalanobis , confronted Haldane about both the hunger strike and the unbudgeted banquet, Haldane resigned from his post in February , and moved to a newly established biometry unit in Odisha.

So one was in the U. A in the days of people like Jay Gould , when in my opinion there was more internal freedom in the U. A than there is today. The "disgusting subservience" of the others has its limits. The people of Calcutta riot, upset trams, and refuse to obey police regulations, in a manner which would have delighted Jefferson. But I believe with Thomas Jefferson that one of the chief duties of a citizen is to be a nuisance to the government of his state.

As there is no world state, I cannot do this. On the other hand, I can be, and am, a nuisance to the government of India, which has the merit of permitting a good deal of criticism, though it reacts to it rather slowly. I also happen to be proud of being a citizen of India, which is a lot more diverse than Europe, let alone the U. A, the U. R or China, and thus a better model for a possible world organisation. It may of course break up, but it is a wonderful experiment.

So, I want to be labeled as a citizen of India. Death[ edit ] Shortly before his death from cancer, Haldane wrote a comic poem while in the hospital, mocking his own incurable disease. It was read by his friends, who appreciated the consistent irreverence with which Haldane had lived his life. The poem ends I know that cancer often kills, But so do cars and sleeping pills; And it can hurt one till one sweats, So can bad teeth and unpaid debts. Haldane died on 1 December in Bhubaneswar.

He willed that his body be used for medical research and teaching [35] at the Rangaraya Medical College , Kakinada. Its refrigeration, if this is possible, should be a first charge on my estate. Briggs , Haldane derived a new interpretation of the enzyme kinetics law described by Victor Henri in , different from the Michaelis—Menten equation.

Leonor Michaelis and Maud Menten assumed that enzyme catalyst and substrate reactant are in fast equilibrium with their complex, which then dissociates to yield product and free enzyme.

The Briggs—Haldane equation was of the same algebraic form; but their derivation is based on the quasi- steady state approximation, which is the concentration of intermediate complex or complexes does not change. As a result, the microscopic meaning of the "Michaelis Constant" Km is different. Although commonly referring to it as Michaelis—Menten kinetics, most of the current models typically use the Briggs—Haldane derivation.

Crow called it "the most important science article ever written in a front-line trench". What little oxygen their cells require can be absorbed by simple diffusion of air through their bodies. But being larger means an animal must have complicated oxygen pumping and distributing systems to reach all the cells. Under the solar energy the anoxic atmosphere containing carbon dioxide , ammonia and water vapour gave rise to a variety of organic compounds, "living or half-living things".

The first molecules reacted with one another to produce more complex compounds, and ultimately the cellular components. At some point a kind of "oily film" was produced that enclosed self-replicating nucleic acids, thereby becoming the first cell. Bernal named the hypothesis biopoiesis or biopoesis, the process of living matter spontaneously evolving from self-replicating but lifeless molecules. Haldane further hypothesised that viruses were the intermediate entities between the prebiotic soup and the first cells.

He asserted that prebiotic life would have been "in the virus stage for many millions of years before a suitable assemblage of elementary units was brought together in the first cell. The gained some empirical support in with the classic Miller—Urey experiment. Since then, the primordial soup theory Oparin—Haldane hypothesis has become prevalent in the study of abiogenesis. He noted that mutations expressed in red blood cells, such as sickle-cell anemia and various thalassemias , were prevalent only in tropical regions where malaria has been endemic.

He further observed that these were favourable traits for natural selection which protected individuals from receiving malarial infection. Allison in He thus played an important role in the modern evolutionary synthesis of the early 20th century. He re-established natural selection as the central mechanism of evolution by explaining it as a mathematical consequence of Mendelian inheritance. A pragmatic dialectical-materialist Marxist , he wrote many articles for the Daily Worker.

In On Being the Right Size , he wrote: "while nationalization of certain industries is an obvious possibility in the largest of states, I find it no easier to picture a completely socialized British Empire or United States than an elephant turning somersaults or a hippopotamus jumping a hedge.

He was pressed to speak out about the rise of Lysenkoism and the persecution of geneticists in the Soviet Union as anti-Darwinist and the political suppression of genetics as incompatible with dialectical materialism.

He shifted his polemic focus to the United Kingdom, criticizing the dependence of scientific research on financial patronage. In he wrote about the Soviet trial of his friend and fellow geneticist Nikolai Vavilov : The controversy among Soviet geneticists has been largely one between the academic scientist, represented by Vavilov and interested primarily in the collection of facts, and the man who wants results, represented by Lysenko.

It has been conducted not with venom, but in a friendly spirit. Soviet genetics, as a whole, is a successful attempt at synthesis of these two contrasted points of view. He left the party in , shortly after considering standing for Parliament as a Communist Party candidate.

He continued to admire Joseph Stalin , describing him in as "a very great man who did a very good job". He said: [65] It is extremely hopeful that some human cell lines can be grown on a medium of precisely known chemical composition.

Perhaps the first step will be the production of a clone from a single fertilized egg, as in Brave New World On the general principle that men will make all possible mistakes before choosing the right path, we shall no doubt clone the wrong people [like Hitler] Assuming that cloning is possible, I expect that most clones would be made from people aged at least fifty, except for athletes and dancers, who would be cloned younger.

They would be made from people who were held to have excelled in a socially acceptable accomplishment. Ectogenesis and in vitro fertilisation[ edit ] His essay Daedalus; or, Science and the Future introduced the term ectogenesis for the concept of what is later known as in vitro fertilisation test tube babies.

He envisioned ectogenesis as a tool for creating better individuals eugenics. His book, A. Air Raid Precautions combined his physiological research into the effects of stress upon the human body with his experience of air raids during the Spanish Civil War to provide a scientific account of the likely effects of the air raids that Britain was to endure during the Second World War.

Criticism of C. Richards , and H. Wells , Haldane was accused by C. Lewis of scientism. Haldane criticised Lewis and his Ransom Trilogy for the "complete mischaracterisation of science, and his disparagement of the human race".

Hydrogen-generating windmills[ edit ] In , in a talk given in Cambridge titled "Science and the Future", Haldane, foreseeing the exhaustion of coal for power generation in Britain, proposed a network of hydrogen -generating windmills. This is the first proposal of the hydrogen-based renewable energy economy.


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