Translated from the French by Jay Miskowiec. Of Other Spaces , Heterotopias. The great obsession of the nineteenth century was, as we know, history: with its themes of development and of suspension, of crisis, and cycle, themes of the ever-accumulating past, with its great preponderance of dead men and the menacing glaciation of the world. The nineteenth century found its essential mythological resources in the second principle of thermaldynamics.
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Etymology[ edit ] Heterotopia follows the template established by the notions of utopia and dystopia. As Walter Russell Mead has written, "Utopia is a place where everything is good; dystopia is a place where everything is bad; heterotopia is where things are different — that is, a collection whose members have few or no intelligible connections with one another.
In general, a heterotopia is a physical representation or approximation of a utopia, or a parallel space such as a prison that contains undesirable bodies to make a real utopian space impossible.
Foucault explains the link between utopias and heterotopias using the metaphor of a mirror. However, the mirror is also a heterotopia, in that it is a real object. The heterotopia of the mirror is at once absolutely real, relating with the real space surrounding it, and absolutely unreal, creating a virtual image.
Foucault describes the crisis heterotopia as "reserved for individuals who are, in relation to society and to the human environment in which they live, in a state of crisis. Heterotopia can be a single real place that juxtaposes several spaces. A garden can be a heterotopia, if it is a real space meant to be a microcosm of different environments, with plants from around the world. Either entry to the heterotopia is compulsory like in entering a prison, or entry requires special rituals or gestures, like in a sauna or a hammam.
Heterotopia has a function in relation to all of the remaining spaces. The two functions are: heterotopia of illusion creates a space of illusion that exposes every real space, and the heterotopia of compensation is to create a real space—a space that is other. The idea of place more often related to ethnicity and gender and less often to the social class issue as a heterotopic entity has been gaining attention in the current context of postmodern, post-structuralist theoretical discussion and political practice in Geography and other spatial social sciences.
The concept of a heterotopia has also been discussed in relation to the space in which learning takes place. The geographer Edward Soja has worked with this concept in dialogue with the works of Henri Lefebvre concerning urban space in the book Thirdspace. A heterotopic perception of digital media is, according to Chung, to grasp the globally dispersed labor structure of multinational capitalism that produces the audiovisual representations of various spacio-temporalities.
Of Other Spaces (1967), Heterotopias
Omschrijving[ bewerken brontekst bewerken ] Een heterotopie is noch privaat en noch publiek. Het ligt ertussenin. Het is een tussenruimte of bemiddelingsruimte. Deze ruimtes hebben gemeen dat ze "anders" zijn. Bijvoorbeeld een begraafplaats, een ruimte die bemiddelt tussen de doden en de levenden. Een museum dat bemiddelt tussen het verleden en het heden. Andere voorbeelden die Foucault noemt zijn: sauna, vakantiedorp, theater, bioscoop, gevangenis, park, bordeel, kermis.