JANINA GARSCIA PDF

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With the adoption of Christianity in , the various religious orders brought with them the Latin language and Gregorian chant. Music was practiced by women in the convents, as evidenced in the miniature from showing a group of nuns singing under the direction of their founder and superior, St.

The order of St. Clare had capellas in most of its convents. The nuns also maintained internal ensembles composed of sisters who sang and played on various instruments violin, bass or organ. The earliest woman to be noted in Polish music history was a nun from the 15th century, Duchna Jankowska. However, it has not been established whether she was a composer, instrumentalist or only a copyist. Another woman, during the same period ca.

Records show that two nuns from the order of St. Clare, Zofia Kaniroska and Teresa Fabianska composed several masses. Documents from the year also indicate that the wife of the convent organist, Pilawska, was a member of the Dominican Cappella in Borek Stary in southeastern Poland. In the 17th and 18th centuries Italian and German artists and musicians were brought in by wealthy families to work side by side with Polish musicians, mainly in court orchestras financed and maintained by the aristocracy.

During that time music was treated as a recreational activity designed for women. They were given art and music lessons by the foreign masters to supplement their education. Aristocratic women not only performed within their own circle of friends, but also composed music for their own entertainment.

Some of the most fervent musical activity took place at the great estates of the Czartoryski and Radziwill Princes. Princess Franciszka Urszula Radziwill wrote comedies interspersed with music. Princess Izabela Czartoryska composed a number of songs which were published in Paris in The Czartoryski family estate at Pulawy became one of the largest music centers in the country during that time.

All the while, in the convents, musical activity was being pursued by the nuns. The music scores preserved in seven books dating from the 17th and 18th centuries, found in the Benedictine monastery in Staniatki, indicate that one of the songs, for three female voices with continuo, was written by Anna Kiernicka in A little earlier, prior to , another nun, Zuzanna Niewiarowska was active as an organist. In the collection of the National Library in Warsaw there have been some Polonaises and a Divertissement for clavecin preserved, composed by Henrietta Jacobson, who resided in Warsaw in Composers of Art Songs Women played an important role in the development of the Polish art song in the late 18th and the first three decades of the 19th century.

Among the active members we find several women: Zofia Zamoyska , Cecilia Beydal d. Amid these aristocratic names, t he name of Maria Szymanowska nee Wolowska is listed. She was the first Polish woman to pursue a professional career as a concert pianist and the first outstanding Polish woman composer.

As members of the Warsaw Music Society these women, along with leading male musicians, commissioned the most popular poet of the time, Juliusz Ursyn-Niemcewicz, to write a cycle of historical poems which they individually set to music. This cycle, entitled Historical Songs Spiewy Historyczne , took 28 years to complete.

The motive behind composing music to these historical texts was more of a patriotic duty than a musical endeavor. The idea was not to create musical gems, but to provide a suitable accompaniment to these texts which were considered of utmost national and historical importance. The collection of songs that emerged does not exhibit any elements of Polish folk music. Yet, it must be regarded as the seed to consequent development of the art song in Poland.

Musically, the best in the cycle,written by a woman, are songs composed by Maria Szymanowska, which are by far the most original and individualistic. She composed five of these historical songs, of which three were published and two are still in manuscript form.

The other two women composers who contributed to the collection were Cecilia Beydal, whose composition shows some interesting rhythms and independent thought, and Zofia Zamoyska who was important enough to be listed first.

Another song by Zofia Zamoyska, Do Zulemy, was published in an album of songs with clavichord accompaniment by various composers, as was then customary. This album is also preserved at the Jagiellonian Library.

An extremely popular form of song composed at this time in Poland and the rest of Europe was the romance. Amelia Oginska composed her songs in and they, too, are housed at the Jagiellonian Library. Two were published in in the annual Flora in Warsaw. The Mazurek is set to the words of A.

Gorecki and Spiewka na powrot wojsk polskich Song for the return of the Polish armies to a text by Dmuszewski. She also set the music to four poems by her son-in-law, the great poet Adam Mickiewicz: Alpuhara, Piesn z wiezy, [Song from the tower], Wilia, and Switezianka. Szymanowska also composed six romances which were published in by Breitkopf and Hartel. Musically, they are closer to the French romances, and only one resembles the Italian operatic romance.

Her melodic line displays some typical characteristics of the pre-romantic art song and her accompaniments clearly show a pianistic talent and style. In general, the Polish romances revealed a tendency toward the use of foreign texts primarily French and in their musical aspects they imitated the foreign examples of the French, Italian or Rococo style. Rarely do we find any Polish national elements-with one exception; Szymanowska employs Polonaise rhythms in two of her songs- the Ballada and Kazimierz Wielki one of her historical songs.

Her romances may be compared favorably with the songs of Mozart, Beethoven and Schubert. Her compositions played an important role in the development of the art song in Poland. Maria Szymanowska Szymanowska was, clearly, the outstanding woman musician of the early 19th century in the pre-Chopin era. A concert pianist of international fame and a prolific composer, she wrote over compositions, mostly for the piano.

It is worth noting that Szymanowska was appreciated by her peers. Robert Schumann highly praised her etudes. She was often compared to Hummel with respect to her piano playing, but it has been stressed that her playing was more delicate and airy. Listen to a fragment of her Nocturne in Bflat major. Other Composers of the 19th Century It was in the 19th century that the real race of female composers began and even then opposition to women entering this profession was very great — wrote Louis C.

Women were also generally having a difficult time getting their music published. She was the only child of Wieniawski to choose a musical career. They were very popular between and when all were published by J. Chester of London under her pseudonym. Irena Dean Paul also wrote pieces for piano a cycle of eight compositions , for violin and piano and for clarinet and piano.

The music critics of her time praised the beauty and originality of her music Nocturne and detected influences of Debussy particularly in her art songs. Before Irena Dean Paul, one Polish pianist seems to have fared better than her contemporaries and even immediate successors. When she was only 18, Tekla Badarzewska-Baranowska wrote a piece of music for the piano that became so popular that even sixty years after her death, one publishing house in Melbourne, Australia, was still selling 10, copies a year.

It appeared later in the Paris periodical Revue et Gazette Musicale which was followed, over the years, by 80 different publications in France, Germany, England, Italy, America and Australia. It has been arranged for piano duet, trumpet, clarinet, flute, guitar, harmonium, and even the zither. Most of the music written by women at that time was for domestic use. These were pieces meant for small gatherings suitable for performance by amateurs.

There were, however, a few women who did compose chamber music: Filipina Brzezinska , Maria Borkowicz b. Some composed for the stage, dramas and comic operas- for instance Julia Grodzicka-Rzewuska early s , Ludmila Jeske , and Salomea Paris b.

The 20th century witnessed a remarkable surge of Polish women composers who merit serious attention. One of the internationally known names is that of Wanda Landowska However, she is better known for her great virtuosity at the harpsichord, and for her knowledge of early keyboard music than for her compositions.

She wrote many pieces for solo piano and harpsichord including ten cadences to various concertos by Mozart, Handel and Haydn all published by Broude Bros. New York. She also composed pieces for orchestra, choir and orchestra, and string ensemble. Anna Maria Klechniowska was of the older generation, who like Bacewicz, studied with Nadia Boulanger. Grazyna Bacewicz The greatest of the 20th century women composers, who is also perhaps the greatest woman composer of all time, is Grazyna Bacewicz She came from a family of artists: her Lithuanian father was a music teacher, her brother Kiejstut became a famous Polish cellist, another brother Witold an eminent Lithuanian composer, and her younger sister, Wanda, is a Polish poet.

Grazyna was an accomplished violinist and pianist, giving recitals by the time she was seven years old. In at her graduation concert, she amazed her audience by her personal performance of her own brilliant violin and piano pieces. She received her musical education in Lodz and in Warsaw, where she studied under Sikorski, Jarzebski and Turczynski, at the time when Karol Szymanowski was director of the music school.

Having a brilliant and inquisitive mind, she also studied philosophy before going to Paris to study composition with Nadia Boulanger and violin with Touret and Flesch. Later, as a composer, she was frequently irked by questions from the press about why there are so few women composers, or whether women are really able to become composers. She was also asked if women composers should marry or have children.

Of course, she could marry, have children, travel, and experience all sorts of adventures — on condition that she possessed a certain inner motor which would allow her to do more in a shorter period of time than most men and women around her. Without this one should not even try to be a composer! She saved these letters.

Personally, I have found that being in love disrupted my work. During World War II, despite mounting difficulties, Bacewicz composed two symphonies and a number of her chamber works. She has written some of the most beautiful music of this century. One only needs to listen to the rare beauty and elegance of the Andante of her early String Concerto or the Andante of the Viola Concerto and the Grave movement from the 7th String Quartet.

Altogether she composed over works. Basically her music is in a neo-classic style, but she got caught up in the wave of modernism after , when Polish composers became acquainted for the first time with Schoenberg, Berg, Messiaen, Webern, Boulez, Nono and Stockhausen.

She widened and modernized her idiom, but she remained true to her former technique and stylistic manner, seeking beauty of sound and perfect formal proportions in all of her music. Listen to a fragment of her Piano Sonata No. In Pensieri Notturni, for chamber orchestra , she produced new orchestral tone colors; in the Sixth String Quartet , she experimented with serial technique.

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