Oleh Lika Aprilia Samiadi Informasi kesehatan ini sudah direview dan diedit oleh: dr. Benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH , juga dikenal sebagai pembesaran prostat jinak, adalah kondisi yang terjadi apabila kelenjar prostat pada pria membesar. Kelenjar prostat adalah kelenjar yang berbentuk seperti kacang kenari yang merupakan bagian dari sistem reproduksi pria. Kelenjar prostat berperan dalam menghasilkan cairan yang penting untuk kesuburan laki-laki, serta memiliki 2 periode pertumbuhan utama. Periode pertama terjadi saat pubertas dan periode kedua mulai pada sekitar usia 25 tahun.
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BPH can be a progressive disease, especially if left untreated. Incomplete voiding results in residual urine or urinary stasis, which can lead to an increased risk of urinary tract infection. This means that androgens must be present for BPH to occur, but do not necessarily directly cause the condition. This is supported by evidence suggesting that castrated boys do not develop BPH when they age. On the other hand, some studies suggest that administering exogenous testosterone is not associated with a significant increase in the risk of BPH symptoms, so the role of testosterone in prostate cancer and BPH is still unclear.
Further randomized controlled trials with more participants are needed to quantify any risk of giving exogenous testosterone. DHT can act in an autocrine fashion on the stromal cells or in paracrine fashion by diffusing into nearby epithelial cells. In both of these cell types, DHT binds to nuclear androgen receptors and signals the transcription of growth factors that are mitogenic to the epithelial and stromal cells.
DHT is ten times more potent than testosterone because it dissociates from the androgen receptor more slowly. Diet[ edit ] Studies indicate that dietary patterns may affect development of BPH, but further research is needed to clarify any important relationship. Men older than 60 in rural areas had very low rates of clinical BPH, while men living in cities and consuming more animal protein had a higher incidence.
Misrepair-accumulation aging theory   suggests that development of benign prostatic hyperplasia is a consequence of fibrosis and weakening of the muscular tissue in the prostate. However, repeated contractions and dilations of myofibers will unavoidably cause injuries and broken myofibers. Myofibers have a low potential for regeneration; therefore, collagen fibers need to be used to replace the broken myofibers.
Such misrepairs make the muscular tissue weak in functioning, and the fluid secreted by glands cannot be excreted completely. Then, the accumulation of fluid in glands increases the resistance of muscular tissue during the movements of contractions and dilations, and more and more myofibers will be broken and replaced by collagen fibers. Pathophysiology[ edit ] Benign prostate hyperplasia As men age, the enzymes aromatase and 5-alpha reductase increase in activity.
These enzymes are responsible for converting androgen hormones into estrogen and dihydrotestosterone , respectively. This metabolism of androgen hormones leads to a decrease in testosterone but increased levels of DHT and estrogen. Both the glandular epithelial cells and the stromal cells including muscular fibers undergo hyperplasia in BPH. The anterior lobe has little in the way of glandular tissue and is seldom enlarged.
Carcinoma of the prostate typically occurs in the posterior lobe — hence the ability to discern an irregular outline per rectal examination. The earliest microscopic signs of BPH usually begin between the age of 30 and 50 years old in the PUG, which is posterior to the proximal urethra.
The degree of LUTS does not necessarily correspond to the size of the prostate. An enlarged prostate gland on rectal examination that is symmetric and smooth supports a diagnosis of BPH. This may occur as a result of uncoordinated contraction of the bladder muscle or impairment in the timing of bladder muscle contraction and urethral sphincter relaxation. Normal non-neoplastic prostatic tissue NNT. Benign prostatic hyperplasia. High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.
Prostatic adenocarcinoma PCA. Management[ edit ] When treating and managing benign prostatic hyperplasia, the aim is to prevent complications related to the disease and improve or relieve symptoms. Lifestyle[ edit ] Lifestyle alterations to address the symptoms of BPH include physical activity,  decreasing fluid intake before bedtime, moderating the consumption of alcohol and caffeine-containing products and following a timed voiding schedule.
Patients can also attempt to avoid products and medications with anticholinergic properties that may exacerbate urinary retention symptoms of BPH, including antihistamines , decongestants , opioids , and tricyclic antidepressants ; however, changes in medications should be done with input from a medical professional.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
However, kidney damage in particular can be a serious health threat when it occurs. When to Seek Medical Care A person may have urinary symptoms unrelated to benign prostatic hyperplasia that are caused by bladder problems, UTIs, or prostatitis —inflammation of the prostate. Symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia also can signal more serious conditions, including prostate cancer. Men with symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia should see a health care provider. Men with the following symptoms should seek immediate medical care: complete inability to urinate painful, frequent, and urgent need to urinate, with fever and chills blood in the urine great discomfort or pain in the lower abdomen and urinary tract How is benign prostatic hyperplasia diagnosed? A health care provider diagnoses benign prostatic hyperplasia based on a personal and family medical history a physical exam medical tests Personal and Family Medical History Taking a personal and family medical history is one of the first things a health care provider may do to help diagnose benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Namun orang sering menyebutnya dengan hipertropi prostat namun secarahistologi yang dominan adalah hyperplasia Long, Hiperplasia prostat jinak adalah pembesaran kelenjar prostat nonkanker Basuki, Hiperplasia prostat jinak BPH adalah penyakit yang disebabkan oleh penuaan Soeparman, BPH adalah suatu keadaan dimana prostat mengalami pembesaran memanjang keatas kedalam kandungkemih dan menyumbat aliran urin dengan cara menutupi orifisium uretra.
Prostate Enlargement (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia)
Comparing normal and enlarged prostate glands Open pop-up dialog box Close Comparing normal and enlarged prostate glands Comparing normal and enlarged prostate glands At normal size, the prostate gland is about the size and shape of a walnut or golf ball. When enlarged, the prostate may obstruct urine flow from the bladder and out the urethra. The prostate gland is located beneath your bladder. The tube that transports urine from the bladder out of your penis urethra passes through the center of the prostate. When the prostate enlarges, it begins to block urine flow. Most men have continued prostate growth throughout life.