In both works, the four remaining movements are sung by the choir alone, whereas Verdi, for example, has the soloists sing several arias and ensembles in his Requiem. After one measure of just D in the instruments, the choir enters pianissimo in six parts on the D minor chord and stays on it in homophony for the entire text "Requiem aeternam" eternal rest. In gradual progression of harmony and a sudden crescendo , a first climax is reached on "et lux perpetua" and lasting light , diminishing on a repeated "luceat eis" may shine for them. The tenors repeat the prayer alone for eternal rest on a simple melody. The sopranos continue similarly that praise is due in Jerusalem, then all voices exclaim "Exaudi" hear. The Kyrie begins with the same melody that the tenor sang before, but now in unison of soprano, alto and tenor, repeated in the following four measures in four-part harmony.
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He also taught composition at the Paris Conservatoire, becoming director in , and his pupils included Maurice Ravel and Nadia Boulanger. He died at the age of 79 in Paris, on November 24, Unlike many composers, he was not drawn to compose a Requiem because of the death of a loved one, though his mother passed away during early stages of composition and his father died two years before.
He added an Offertoire in , and added a setting of the Libera Me that he had written for baritone and organ some twelve years earlier. He added horns, trumpets, and trombones to the orchestra, and a baritone soloist, and this version was first performed at the Madeleine in January of In this version, the one most commonly heard in concert, woodwinds and violins were added to the orchestra, though for the most part they only double lines present in the original orchestration.
He wanted something different than the operatic bel canto style which was popular in Paris at the time, and different than the outsized, large-scale Germanic Romantic style which dominated the rest of Europe. Along the way, he helped to establish a distinctive French style which set the stage for the development of the Impressionist style of Debussy and Ravel.
For example, the composers of the day tended to write for progressively bigger and bigger orchestras, with thicker, more complicated textures, and phrases which stuck slavishly to the divisions of the bar line. And in the Requiem, these gradations often follow the central points of emphasis in the text.
One example is the curious relationship between freedom and control. In his piano music, his chamber compositions, his songs, and his vocal works, phrases emerge that are freed from the tyranny of the strong-weak-strong-weak four-beat bar line.
For the Requiem, he draws melodic inspiration from the tunes and rhythms of Gregorian chant, which thought in similarly long phrases. He knew exactly what he wanted, and is scrupulously precise in his directions on rhythm, dynamics, and phrase length. And his debt to Brahms is interesting; one might think of this work as a "French Requiem". For the opening movement of the German Requiem, Brahms uses divided violas and cellos in the opening bars, and the violins do not play at all.
The German Requiem includes a German-language version of the Sanctus Wie lieblich sind deine Wohnungen, Herr Zebaoth , followed by a beautiful interlude essentially for soprano solo, then a dramatic movement for baritone and choir with foretellings of the Last Judgment, and finishes with a hymn for those who are dead. There are some structural parallels with movements in th! More importantly, both composers aimed at a very different view of the Mass of Death.
Rather than offer visions of the terrors to come, Brahms sought to create a mass to comfort the living. The following excerpt on the Requiem was originally published in Comoedia , p. But it is thus that I see death: as a happy deliverance, an aspiration towards happiness above, rather than as a painful experience. The music of Gounod has been criticized for its overinclination towards human tenderness.
But his nature predisposed him to feel this way: religious emotion took this form inside him. As to my Requiem, perhaps I have also instinctively sought to escape from what is thought right and proper, after all the years of accompanying burial services on the organ! I know it all by heart. I wanted to write something different. The fact that Proust does not mention the Requiem once suggests how relatively unknown it must have been, outside of church services. These are his thoughts on spirituality in the Requiem: "Everything I managed to entertain in the way of religious illusion I put into my Requiem, which moreover is dominated from beginning to end by a very human feeling of faith in eternal rest.
An organ would be necessary because it accompanies the whole way through, but a loud harmonium would do instead. As for the number of voices in the choir, that will naturally depend on the size of the hall where you give your concerts. The man who sang the bass part, Vallier, is booked at La Monnaie, but he was execrable - a real opera singer who did not begin to understand the composure and gravity of his part in this Requiem. Then he introduces two chant-inspired tunes, one sung by the tenors and the Te decet tune, sung by the sopranos.
The choir then pleads for attention to its prayer, and the Kyrie setting, a remarkably short one, derives from the Requiem aeternam chant tune. Even here, though, he makes some selective edits: we liberate the souls of all the dead, not only omnium fidelium defunctorum all the faithful dead. Between these two segments is the baritone solo, based on the Hostias text.
Listen for the accompaniment, which inserts the Te decet tune in right before the baritone sings fac eas, Domine. And observe how the orchestra turns the wavering accompaniment of the somber introduction into something different entirely under the baritone soloist.
Over an almost minimalist harp-and-string figure perhaps representing the clouds themselves? Instead he adds back the final two lines of the Sequence. That next movement, the Agnus Dei combined with the Communion segment, opens with the other great chant-like intonation for the tenors. This setting is the sole vision of Judgment Day in the work, though the solo baritone voice echoed in the unison choral version at the end of the movement and the text itself puts these visions of hellfire on a much more personal scale.
This text is also separate from the traditional Requiem Mass, an antiphon which is usually sung during the burial itself. Compare this text to a standard Requiem text. Text added to the standard Requiem text is highlighted in boldface, and text excised from individual movements is indicated as well.
Gabriel Fauré: Requiem
"PIE JESU" Sheet Music