Bantu bedeutet in vielen Bantusprachen Menschen. Dadurch hat sich das wissenschaftliche Bild der Geschichte der Bantu stark gewandelt. Irgendwann im 2. Jahrtausend v.
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C 5 millennia to date. Initially, archaeologists believed that they could find archaeological similarities in the ancient cultures of the region that the Bantu-speakers were held to have traversed; while linguists, classifying the languages and creating a genealogical table of relationships, believed they could reconstruct material culture elements.
They believed that the expansion was caused by the development of agriculture, the making of ceramics, and the use of iron, which permitted new ecological zones to be exploited. In , Roland Oliver published an article presenting these correlations as a reasonable hypothesis. In Eastern and Southern Africa , Bantu speakers may have adopted livestock husbandry from other unrelated Cushitic -and Nilotic -speaking peoples they encountered. Herding practices reached the far south several centuries before Bantu-speaking migrants did.
Archaeological , linguistic , genetic , and environmental evidence all support the conclusion that the Bantu expansion was a significant human migration. A characteristic feature of most Niger—Congo languages, including the Bantu languages, is their use of tone. They generally lack case inflection , but grammatical gender is characteristic, with some languages having two dozen genders noun classes.
The root of the verb tends to remain unchanged, with either particles or auxiliary verbs expressing tenses and moods. For example, in a number of languages the infinitival is the auxiliary designating the future. Pre-expansion-era demography[ edit ] Before the expansion of Bantu-speaking farmers, Central, Southern, and Southeast Africa were populated by Pygmy foragers, Khoisan -speaking hunter-gatherers , Nilo-Saharan -speaking herders, and Cushitic -speaking pastoralists. Central Africa[ edit ] It is thought that Central African Pygmies and Bantus branched out from a common ancestral population c.
Much of this vocabulary is botanical, deals with honey collecting, or is otherwise specialised for the forest and is shared between western Batwa groups. It has been proposed that this is the remnant of an independent western Batwa Mbenga or "Baaka" language. Their descendants have largely mixed with other peoples and adopted other languages. A few still live by foraging often supplemented by working for neighbouring farmers in the arid regions around the Kalahari desert, while a larger number of Nama continue their traditional subsistence by raising livestock in Namibia and adjacent South Africa.
Southeast Africa[ edit ] Prior to the arrival of Bantus in Southeast Africa, Cushitic -speaking peoples had migrated into the region from the Ethiopian Highlands and other more northerly areas. The first waves consisted of Southern Cushitic speakers, who settled around Lake Turkana and parts of Tanzania beginning around 5, years ago. Many centuries later, around 1, AD, some Eastern Cushitic speakers also settled in northern and coastal Kenya.
The movement of Bantu settlers, who migrated southwards and settled in the summer rainfall regions of Southern Africa within the last years, established a range of relationships with the indigenous San people from bitter conflict to ritual interaction and intermarriage. However, mtDNA genetic research from Cabinda suggests that only haplogroups that originated in West Africa are found there today, and the distinctive L0 of the pre-Bantu population is missing, suggesting that there was a complete population replacement.
In South Africa, however, a more complex intermixing could have taken place. Movements by small groups to the southeast from the Great Lakes region were more rapid, with initial settlements widely dispersed near the coast and near rivers, due to comparatively harsh farming conditions in areas farther from water.
Such processes of state-formation occurred with increasing frequency from the 16th century onward. They were probably due to denser population, which led to more specialised divisions of labour, including military power, while making outmigration more difficult. Other factors were increased trade among African communities and with European and Arab traders on the coasts, technological developments in economic activity, and new techniques in the political-spiritual ritualisation of royalty as the source of national strength and health.
Two main groups developed: the Nguni Xhosa , Zulu , Swazi , who occupied the eastern coastal plains, and the Sotho—Tswana , who lived on the interior plateau. In the late 18th and early 19th century, two major events occurred. The Trekboers were colonizing new areas of southern Africa, moving northeast from the Cape Colony , and they came into contact with the Xhosa, the Southern Nguni.
At the same time, major events were taking place further north in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal. At that time, the area was populated by dozens of small clans, one of which was the Zulu , then a particularly small clan of no local distinction whatsoever. In , Shaka acceded to the Zulu throne. Within a year, he had conquered the neighboring clans, and had made the Zulu into the most important ally of the large Mtetwa clan , which was in competition with the Ndwandwe clan for domination of the northern part of modern-day KwaZulu-Natal.
Criticism[ edit ] Manfred K. Eggert stated that "the current archaeological record in the Central African rainforest is extremely spotty and consequently far from convincing so as to be taken as a reflection of a steady influx of Bantu speakers into the forest, let alone movement on a larger scale.
Teorias da expansão Bantu
C 5 millennia to date. Initially, archaeologists believed that they could find archaeological similarities in the ancient cultures of the region that the Bantu-speakers were held to have traversed; while linguists, classifying the languages and creating a genealogical table of relationships, believed they could reconstruct material culture elements. They believed that the expansion was caused by the development of agriculture, the making of ceramics, and the use of iron, which permitted new ecological zones to be exploited. In , Roland Oliver published an article presenting these correlations as a reasonable hypothesis. In Eastern and Southern Africa , Bantu speakers may have adopted livestock husbandry from other unrelated Cushitic -and Nilotic -speaking peoples they encountered.
A Expansão e Fixação Bantu em Moçambique