Mikalabar Similarly, in antifungal assay, N. These are annual and perennial herbs with hairless and usually spiny leaves. In this study, three plants were assayed for antibacterial and antifungal potentials. Perspectives on New Crops and New Uses. Eryngium caeruleum M.
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Abstract Background Herbal medicines have long been used for various ailments in various societies and natural bioactive compounds are gaining more and more importance due to various factors. In this context, three plant species i. Methods In this study, three plants were assayed for antibacterial and antifungal potentials.
The antibacterial investigations were performed via well diffusion method and nutrient broth dilution method. The bacterial strains used in the study were Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The fungal strains used were Aspergillis fumigatus, Aspergillis flavus and Aspergillis niger. Ceftriaxone and nystatin were used as standard drugs in antibacterial and antifungal assays respectively.
Results Different fractions from N. All the samples exhibited prominent antibacterial activity against the tested strains.
Similarly, in antifungal assay, N. The chloroform fraction displayed MFCs of The whole study demonstrates that all the three plant species were active against tested bacterial and fungal strains.
Conclusion It can be concluded from our findings that N. Furthermore, being the potent samples, the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of these plants can be subjected to column chromatography for the isolation of more effective antimicrobial drugs. Peer Review reports Background Herbal therapies have long history for their use in various ailments. Being comparatively harmless, the natural products have attracted the focus of innovative researchers in the treatment of various challenging diseases [ 1 , 2 ].
The morbidity rate of diseases originated from bacteria and fungi is surpassing various other diseases [ 6 , 7 ]. The use of antibacterial and antifungal drugs is a main approach among the therapeutic options to treat bacterial and fungal infections [ 8 ].
But still there are numerous factors which minimize the therapeutic outcome of the antibiotic therapy. Beside various factors, the microbial resistance has prominently diminished the efficacy of antibiotics and the microbial resistance is the major cause of failure to treat bacterial and fungal infections [ 9 , 10 ].
Moreover, adverse drug reactions and hypersensitivity reactions associated with the use of various synthetic antimicrobial agents have decreased the interest of scientists to synthesize novel drugs having antimicrobial potentials. Therefore, the attention of researchers is mainly focused towards the natural compounds isolated from various plants [ 11 — 16 ].
Plants have been reported to possess antimicrobial potentials due to the presence of various secondary metabolites [ 17 , 18 ]. The alkaloids and flavonoids have been reported to possess strong antimicrobial potentials against bacteria and fungi [ 19 , 20 ]. Flavonoids like robinetin, myricetin, apigenin, rutin, Kuwanon C, mulberrofuran G, albanol B, kenusanone A and sophoraflavanone G isolated from various plants like Morus alba L. Vent, Sophora flavescens Ait and Echinosophora koreensis Nakai have been reported to possess strong antibacterial potentials [ 19 ].
Similarly, alkaloids like sampangine and azafluorenone isolated from Cananga odorata and Mitrephora diversifolia respectively have also been reported to possess strong antifungal activities [ 21 — 24 ]. Varieties of plants belonging to different families have been scientifically verified for antimicrobial potentials. The scientific verification of a specific plant for the specific pharmacological activity is based on the traditional knowledge of species from the plant family. A specific biological potential of specific plant can be heralded by the ethnobotany and ethnomedicine [ 25 ].
Eryngium caeruleum belongs to the family Apiaceae. Several species of this genus have been reported to possess antimicrobial activities [ 26 ]. Similarly, Notholirion thomsonianum belongs to the family Liliaceae. This plant has been used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of various infectious diseases especially intestinal [ 27 ]. Likewise, Allium consanguineum belongs to the family Amaryllidaceae. A wide variety of species of Allium genus have been reported to possess notable antimicrobial properties in which the onion and garlic are the prominent candidates [ 28 — 30 ].
The selection of these plants species for antimicrobial studies was made on the basis of their traditional uses as well as their genera and family background.
Similarly, the rhizomes of N. Secondly, the rhizomes and underground part of multiple plants of the families of these plants have been reported to be rich sources of numerous bioactive compounds i. Likewise, the aerial parts of several species of Eryngium are reportedly good source of secondary metabolites and possess pharmacological potentials [ 32 ]. Therefore, the aerial parts of E. Therefore, the current study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of Eryngium caeruleum, Notholirion thomsonianum and Allium consanguineum and scientifically validate its folkloric uses.
Methods Plant collection and extraction The plants used in this research, i. The voucher numbers given by the herbarium officials are H. The rhizomes of the N.
Likewise, the aerial parts of E. After individual soaking these plant samples were filtered using Whattman filter paper Whatman no. Semi solid masses of methanolic extracts of E. Fractionation The successive solvent-solvent extraction procedure was followed for the fractionation of these plants samples.
The crude methanolic extracts of E. After vigorously shaking, all the three extracts were allowed to separate into two distinct layers. The upper n-hexane layer was collected and the same procedure was repeated until colorless n-hexane layer was obtained. After the collection of n-hexane fraction of each plant, it was fractionated with other solvents with increasing polarity i.
The weights obtained for n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions of E. Similarly, the weights obtained for n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions of N.
Likewise, the weights obtained for n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions of A. Standardization of fungal strains were done using microscopic enumeration with a cell-counting hematocytometer and optical density method as previously reported [ 40 ]. Fungal strains were identified according to principles and procedures of clinical laboratory standard institute CLSI for the detection of fungi in clinical specimens [ 41 ].
Antibacterial assay The well-diffusion method was used for the evaluation of antibacterial activity of various samples of the three plants [ 42 , 43 ]. Nutrient agar plates were prepared, properly labeled and inoculated with the test organisms under laminar flow hood with aseptic conditions.
In each petri plate, four wells at the sides and one well in the center were made. After incubation, the zone of inhibition of each sample was measured in mm. Various dilutions were prepared from the stock solution ranging from 0.
Nutrient broth media was prepared in sterile water and sterilized in autoclave. The media prepared was inoculated with various strains in separate conical flasks. A few ml of inoculated media was transferred aseptically into properly labeled test tubes under laminar flow hood and the test samples were added to them. After incubation, the test tubes were observed for turbidity which is directly related to the growth of bacterial strains.
Fungal media, i. After incubation, the test tubes were observed for fungal growth. The minimum fungicidal concentrations MFCs were recorded as the maximum concentration of the sample at which no fungal growth was observed in test tubes. All the procedure was performed in triplicate and the nystatin was employed as positive control [ 47 , 48 ]. P values less than or equal to 0. Results Antibacterial assays Zone of inhibitions ZOIs determination The well diffusion method was used for the three plants against various bacterial strains.
The crude extracts and sub-fractions were analyzed for their antibacterial effect by the determination of their inhibitory zones against each strain. Among the three plants, N. The Nt. Cf exhibited The antibacterial effect of Nt. Cf was almost comparable to the effects of the positive control. In the remaining fractions of N.
EtAc and Nt. Cr also demonstrated notable antibacterial potentials. The least activity is attributed to the Nt. Hex fraction. Table 1 Zone of inhibitions of the solvents fractions in millimeter from three plants against various bacterial strains Full size table The A. Among different samples of A. EtAc and Ac. Cf displayed considerable ZOIs in comparision to the positive control.
The Ac. EtAc demonstrated Moreover, almost all the solvent fractions of E. However, the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions were still observed to have dominant antibacterial activity amongst other fractions of E. Among the test samples, the chloroform fractions Nt.
Cf, Ac. Cf, Ec. Cf showed the least MIC values against all the test strains. It means that the chloroform fractions of the three plants were the most active among the rest of the samples. The chloroform fraction of N. The chloroform fraction of A.