History[ edit ] Ingersoll Of the many internationally recorded publications relating to gloss measurement, the earliest recorded studies perceived and instrumental are attributed to Ingersoll,  who in developed a means to measure the glare of paper. The instrument employed incident and viewing angles of Ingersoll successfully applied for and patented this instrument a few years later in In Jones,  during his study of gloss of photographic papers using goniophotometry, developed a glossmeter based on his research, which provided closer correlation to gloss ratings assigned by visual evaluation.
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History[ edit ] Ingersoll Of the many internationally recorded publications relating to gloss measurement, the earliest recorded studies perceived and instrumental are attributed to Ingersoll,  who in developed a means to measure the glare of paper.
The instrument employed incident and viewing angles of Ingersoll successfully applied for and patented this instrument a few years later in In Jones,  during his study of gloss of photographic papers using goniophotometry, developed a glossmeter based on his research, which provided closer correlation to gloss ratings assigned by visual evaluation.
Jones was the first to emphasize the importance of using goniophotometric measurements in studies of gloss. Early work in by Pfund  led to the development of a variable angle "glossimeter" to measure specular gloss which was later patented in Reflected light was measured using a pyrometer lamp as a photometer. As the angle was variable this instrument could also be used for the measurement of sheen or specular gloss at near grazing angles.
Pfunds glossmeter During this time, growing interest in this field resulted in a number of similar studies by other individuals each having their own method for gloss measurement, most of which published as technical articles in scientific journals of that time. A few of these also resulted in patents. In Hunter, as part of a research project for the U.
National Bureau of Standards, produced a paper on the methods of determining gloss. In this paper he discussed instruments that were available at the time including the ones mentioned previously in relation to the classification of six different types of gloss. In this paper Hunter also detailed the general requirements for a standardised glossmeter.
ASTM has a number of other gloss-related standards designed for application in specific industries. In the paint industry, measurements of specular gloss are made according to International Standard ISO Construction[ edit ] A typical glossmeter consists of a fixed mechanical assembly comprising a standardised light source that projects a parallel beam of light onto the test surface to be measured and a filtered detector located to receive the rays reflected from the surface.
The ASTM Method states that the illumination should be defined such that the source-detector combination is spectrally corrected to give the CIE luminous efficiency, V? The instruments are calibrated using reference standards that are usually made from highly polished, plane, black glass with a refractive index of 1. The measurement results of a glossmeter are related to the amount of reflected light from a black glass standard with a defined refractive index.
The ratio of reflected to incident light for the specimen, compared to the ratio for the gloss standard, is recorded as gloss units GU. Measurement angle refers to the angle between the incident light and the perpendicular. The angle is selected based on the anticipated gloss range, as shown in the following table.
Ultraportable digital glossmeter - Zehntner ZG8000
Vimuro It contains four separate gloss angles Note 1: Connect with us for your business enquiries. The ASTM D standard test method is used to measure the gloss of solid plastics and plastic films opaque satm transparent both. Through our network of over 43, people in 1, laboratories and offices in countries, Intertek provides quality and safety solutions to a wide range of industries around the world. Specular Gloss is a measure of the light reflected by the surface of a material.
What gloss standard should I be using to measure gloss?
A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. It contains four separate gloss angles Note 1 It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. Referenced Documents2.
Connect with us for your business enquiries. Certification Formally confirming that your products and services meet all trusted external and internal standards. It is sometimes used for comparative measurements of these surface properties. Thus Gloss can be useful in product development, process development, and end use performance testing.