AMITRAZ POISONING PDF

Danicut Causes of Amitraz Insecticides Poisoning in Dogs Amitraz insecticide poisoning in dogs occurs when dogs ingest amitraz from tick collars. Poisoning may also occur by inhalation and when it comes into contact with the skin. In addition to negatively affecting the central nervous system, amitraz poisons the dog by: Alpha-2 — agnostics cause neurological adverse effects Suppresses the release of insulin Increases the glucose level plasma Inhibits Prostaglandin E2 synthesis Promotes the loss of heat Affects Alpha-adrenoceptors, causing hypotension Relaxes muscles of the pharynx, causing asphyxiation Diagnosis of Amitraz Insecticides Poisoning in Dogs If your dog has ingested amitraz, it is important to seek prompt medical attention. The veterinarian may suggest that you induce vomiting immediately. Once you have taken your dog to the veterinarian, he will assess his symptoms and ask questions pertaining to the amount of poison ingested and at what time it was ingested. The veterinarian may perform abdominal x-rays to take a closer look at the collar in his abdomen.

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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. A limited number of human intoxication cases have been published in the literature. Lack of a clear and specific protocol for the therapy of amitraz intoxication may make its successfully managed case reports useful and valuable for other clinical practitioners in poisoning departments.

She found nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Immediately, her family took her to a clinic near their house. At that clinic pm she had miosis and they did gastric lavage , one adult dose of activated charcoal 50 g and referred her to our Poisoning Emergency Department, where she was managed supportively and successfully.

Several studies reported that using atropine for those amitraz poisoned patients with both miosis and bradycardia resolved the problem and recommend it as the first line of drug therapy when bradycardia occurs from vagal stimulation and atrioventricular block.

Management of amitraz poisoning is still considered to be supportive and symptomatic. Although the effects of activated charcoal and cathartics have not been studied, they may still be considered for treatment. Key Words: Amitraz, Bradycardia, Miosis, Central nervous system, Isfahan Introduction Amitraz is a triazapentadiene compound, a member of the amidine chemical family 1.

It is a member of formammidine pesticides and is used worldwide 1. Commercial formulations of amitraz generally contain Adverse reaction and side effects have been reported in animals exposed to the product, but only a limited number of human intoxication cases have been published in the literature.

It also inhibits monoamine oxidase MAO enzyme activity and prostaglandin E2 synthesis 1. Amitraz poisoning may occur through the oral or dermal routes and potentially through inhaling 5. Poisoning is accompanied with numerous symptoms varying from central nervous system depression drowsiness, coma, and convulsion , to miosis, or, rarely, mydriasis, respiratory depression, bradycardia, hypotension, hypertension, hypothermia or fever, hyperglycaemia, polyuria, vomiting, decreased gastrointestinal motility, and intestinal distension 1.

At first, she had nausea, felt dizzy and vomiting followed afterward. Her family immediately took her to a clinic nearby. While being transferred to the hospital by emergency services, she lost her consciousness, had respiratory depression with shallow respiration, been intubated and received atropine because of bradycardia.

On arrival to our center, her symptoms were coma with no response to painful stimuli, midriasis with negative light reflex. The analysis of blood gas was: PaO2: Furthermore, she received 50 g activated charcoal. Then the result of her ABG turned to: pH 7. The other lab tests were: BUN 13 , Creatinine 0. Chest X-Ray was normal. We consulted with the neurologist, and everything seemed normal.

The following day at am, her consciousness improved and she was extubated. At am she gained her consciousness back and was able to answer to the questions. And finally, she completely recovered and discharged from the hospital in the afternoon. Results and Discussion Amitraz is a pharmaceutical, veterinary, and an agricultural product which is used worldwide. It can cause poisoning in animals and humans when ingested, inhaled, or after skin exposure 1. The observation of respiratory depression concomitant with central nervous system depression may suggest a direct inhibitory effect of the agent on the respiratory center 6.

Presence of coma, absence of light reflex, and respiratory failure are probably due to the ingestion of a greater amount of amitraz, which supports its dose-dependent effects on body systems.

Our patient got conscious after 20 h. The resolution time for CNS depression was reported to be h in the previous reports 1 - In our case, bradycardia was also present, and miosis accompanied it. The co-existence of bradycardia and miosis and the respiratory depression may lead to confusion with some poisoning such as organophosphate or opioid poisoning; and both that are diagnosed should be excluded Observation of miosis early in the intoxication followed by progression to mydriasis suggests that the presynaptic effect is dominant in the early phase and the postsynaptic effect in the late phase of the intoxication.

In our study atropine was used before reaching hospital to treat bradycardia. Using atropine for treatment of bradycardia is controversial 1 , 5 , 8 , However, most studies reported that using atropine for those with both miosis and bradycardia resolved the problem 8 - Atropine is a first line therapy for the bradycardia that results from vagal stimulation and atrioventricular blocks, but not for those related to other mechanisms Hsu and colleagues claimed that atropine increased heart rate and prevented amitraz induced bradycardia in animals We conclude that using atropine is effective when there is only bradycardia in amitraz poisoning.

Although amitraz and its active metabolite inhibit insulin and stimulated glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas in a concentration-dependent manner 16 , we did not find hyperglycemia in our case. Slight hyponatremia was observed in our case. The levels of BUN, creatinine, and the serum sodium and potassium usually do not change in amitraz poisoning 5. However kalyoncu and colleagues also reported hyponatraemia in their three cases The analysis of blood gas showed respiratory alkalosis.

The kalyoncu and colleagues reported respiratory alkalosis in two cases, respiratory acidosis in three cases, and metabolic acidosis in five cases We did not observe any changes in her ECG. However in the study by Aydin and colleagues, non-specific ST changes were reported in the ECGs of seven children with no history of cardiac disease who recovered completely in 24 h 8.

In conclusion, there is no specific antidote for amitraz poisoning and the management should be supportive and symptomatic. Although the effects of activated charcoal and cathartics have not been studied, they may still be considered for treatment 1. Particular attention must be given to monitoring and evaluating of the respiratory, cardiac, and central nervous systems. The clinical presentations of our case were relatively severe and required intubation and mechanical ventilation.

With the supportive management, the prognosis is good and the patients may be discharged healthy without any organ dysfunction. We believe that the action by producers, the regulatory authorities, and the national poisons control centers can minimize the amitraz poisoning. For example: the containers should be designed as childproof packages with striking and clear warning labels; the public education should be expanded on primary prevention of poisoning using media sources; and there should be new legislation for safety caps on poison containers References 1.

An unusual poisoning with the unusual pesticide amitraz. Characterization of the antinociceptive and sedative effect of amitraz in horses. Jones RD. Central and peripheral alpha-adrenoceptor actions of amitraz in the dog. Amitraz poisoning in children: clinical and laboratory findings of eight cases. Acute amitraz intoxication in human. Intensive Care Med. Kambibayashi T. Adreneroreceptor agonists. In: Atlee J, editor. Complications in Anesthesia.

Philadelphia : W. Saunders; Amitraz poisoning in children. Different clinical features of amitraz poisoning in children. Basic toxicological approach has been effective in two poisoned patients with amitraz ingestion: case reports. Iranian J. Amitraz intoxication in children in the rural black Sea region: analysis of forty-three patients.

Stancil , SA Case study: atropine and the bradycardia patient. Questioning the need for medical interventions is key to patient care. EMS Mag. Sanders KH, Jurna I. Effects of urapidil, clonidine, prazosin and propranolol on autonomic nerve activity, blood pressure and heart rate in anaesthetized rats and cats. Effect of amitraz on heart rate and aortic blood pressure in conscious dogs: Influence of atropine, prazosin, tolazoline, and yohimbine.

Effects of the pesticide amitraz and its metabolite BTS on insulin and glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas: involvement of [alpha] 2D-Adrenergic receptors. Childhood poisoning: access and prevention.

Child Health.

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Tick Medicine Poisoning in Dogs

Synthesis[ edit ] Since its discovery by Boots Co. In the named manufacturing plant 2,4-Xylidine has been used as the aniline. The free -NH groups of these molecules react with each other to finally yield amitraz. These last steps need to be carried out by instructed personnel, who wear full protective clothing with a positive-pressure breathing apparatus. In addition the replacement of the dialkylformamide with an N-alkylpyrrolidone can be used to obtain products of the clenpyrin group from this reaction. Metabolism[ edit ] Since amitraz most common use is as a pesticide , it is important to consider that between animals and plants often different pathways for biotransformation occur. Therefore, they are considered as two of the major metabolites in the amitraz pathway.

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Amitraz Poisoning Treatment: Still Supportive?

E-mail: moc. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Sir, Amitraz is a synthetic compound used in veterinary medicine as a treatment for control of tics and mites in dogs. It also inhibits monoamine oxidase enzyme activity and prostaglandin E2 synthesis. A 15 year old female was brought to emergency room of our hospital in semicomatosed stage. History given by her family revealed the intake of a glass approximately mL of anti-flea shampoo for dogs as a suicidal attempt.

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