Amazon Renewed Refurbished products with a warranty. During the 15th to 18th centuries, a great divergence took place, comprising the European Renaissance, age of discoverythe formation of the colonial empiresthe Age of Reasonand the associated leap forward in technology and the development of ehrocentrism and early industrialisation. The abstract noun Eurocentrism French eurocentrismeearlier europocentrisme as the term for an ideology was coined in the s by the Egyptian Marxian economist Samir Amineurocentrisk director of the African Institute for Economic Development and Planning of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. On the periphery of that Near Eastern civilization arose the culture of capitalism. Yet, even as the polarities of center-periphery help identify incentives for change, they also reflect a certain aspect of the capitalist mentality. Is There No Alternative?

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Timur orders campaign against Georgia. Timur began his Persian campaign with Herat , capital of the Kartid dynasty. When Herat did not surrender he reduced the city to rubble and massacred most of its citizens; it remained in ruins until Shah Rukh ordered its reconstruction.

Timur then headed west to capture the Zagros Mountains , passing through Mazandaran. During his travel through the north of Persia, he captured the then town of Tehran , which surrendered and was thus treated mercifully.

He laid siege to Soltaniyeh in Khorasan revolted one year later, so Timur destroyed Isfizar, and the prisoners were cemented into the walls alive. The next year the kingdom of Sistan, under the Mihrabanid dynasty , was ravaged, and its capital at Zaranj was destroyed. Timur then returned to his capital of Samarkand , where he began planning for his Georgian campaign and Golden Horde invasion.

In , Timur passed through Mazandaran as he had when trying to capture the Zagros. He went near the city of Soltaniyeh , which he had previously captured but instead turned north and captured Tabriz with little resistance, along with Maragha. He ordered heavy taxation of the people, which was collected by Adil Aqa, who was also given control over Soltaniyeh.

Adil was later executed because Timur suspected him of corruption. Timur then went north to begin his Georgian and Golden Horde campaigns, pausing his full-scale invasion of Persia. When he returned, he found his generals had done well in protecting the cities and lands he had conquered in Persia. Though many rebelled, and his son Miran Shah , who may have been regent , was forced to annex rebellious vassal dynasties, his holdings remained. So he proceeded to capture the rest of Persia, specifically the two major southern cities of Isfahan and Shiraz.

When he arrived with his army at Isfahan in , the city immediately surrendered ; he treated it with relative mercy as he normally did with cities that surrendered unlike Herat. His massacres were selective and he spared the artistic and educated. Timur then began a five-year campaign to the west in , attacking Persian Kurdistan. In , Shiraz was captured after surrendering, and the Muzaffarids became vassals of Timur, though prince Shah Mansur rebelled but was defeated, and the Muzafarids were annexed.

Shortly after Georgia was devastated so that the Golden Horde could not use it to threaten northern Iran. In the same year, Timur caught Baghdad by surprise in August by marching there in only eight days from Shiraz. Ahmad was unpopular but got some dangerous help from Qara Yusuf of the Kara Koyunlu ; he fled again in , this time to the Ottomans.

Tokhtamysh—Timur war In the meantime, Tokhtamysh, now khan of the Golden Horde , turned against his patron and in invaded Azerbaijan. The inevitable response by Timur resulted in the Tokhtamysh—Timur war. In the initial stage of the war, Timur won a victory at the Battle of the Kondurcha River.

After the battle Tokhtamysh and some of his army were allowed to escape. He then rode west about 1, miles advancing in a front more than 10 miles wide. In the second phase of the conflict, Timur took a different route against the enemy by invading the realm of Tokhtamysh via the Caucasus region. In , Timur defeated Tokhtamysh in the Battle of the Terek River , concluding the struggle between the two monarchs. Tokhtamysh was unable to restore his power or prestige, and he was killed about a decade later in the area of present-day Tyumen.

The Golden Horde no longer held power after their losses to Timur. The village was prepared for the attack, evidenced by its fortress and system of tunnels. However, it has been suggested that his religious persuasions and view of himself as an executor of divine will may have contributed to his motivations. A group of locals in the region was dissatisfied with this and, Khwandamir writes, these locals assembled and brought up their complaint with Timur, possibly provoking his attack on the Ismailis there.

He was opposed by Ahirs and faced some reversals from the Jats , but the Sultanate at Delhi did nothing to stop him. His invasion did not go unopposed and he encountered resistance from the Governor of Meerut during the march to Delhi. Timur was still able to continue his approach to Delhi, arriving in , to fight the armies of Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq, which had already been weakened by a succession struggle within the royal family.

Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq and the army of Mallu Iqbal [60] had war elephants armored with chain mail and poison on their tusks. Timur then loaded his camels with as much wood and hay as they could carry. When the war elephants charged, Timur set the hay on fire and prodded the camels with iron sticks, causing them to charge at the elephants howling in pain: Timur had understood that elephants were easily panicked.

Faced with the strange spectacle of camels flying straight at them with flames leaping from their backs, the elephants turned around and stampeded back toward their own lines. Timur capitalized on the subsequent disruption in the forces of Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq, securing an easy victory. Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq fled with remnants of his forces. Delhi was sacked and left in ruins. Before the battle for Delhi, Timur executed , captives.

Bayezid began annexing the territory of Turkmen and Muslim rulers in Anatolia. As Timur claimed sovereignty over the Turkmen rulers, they took refuge behind him. In , Timur invaded Christian Armenia and Georgia. Of the surviving population, more than 60, of the local people were captured as slaves, and many districts were depopulated.

Timur invaded Baghdad in June After the capture of the city, 20, of its citizens were massacred. Timur ordered that every soldier should return with at least two severed human heads to show him. When they ran out of men to kill, many warriors killed prisoners captured earlier in the campaign, and when they ran out of prisoners to kill, many resorted to beheading their own wives. Shall a petty prince such as you are contend with us? But your rodomontades braggadocio are not extraordinary; for a Turcoman never spake with judgement.

Bayezid was captured in battle and subsequently died in captivity, initiating the twelve-year Ottoman Interregnum period. As Lord Kinross reported in The Ottoman Centuries, the Italians preferred the enemy they could handle to the one they could not. Timur then spent some time in Ardabil , where he gave Ali Safavi , leader of the Safaviyya , a number of captives. Subsequently, he marched to Khorasan and then to Samarkhand, where he spent nine months celebrating and preparing to invade Mongolia and China.

The fortress at Jiayu Pass was strengthened due to fear of an invasion by Timur. The suzerain-vassal relationship between Ming empire and Timurid existed for a long time. To this end Timur made an alliance with surviving Mongol tribes based in Mongolia and prepared all the way to Bukhara. Timur preferred to fight his battles in the spring. However, he died en route during an uncharacteristic winter campaign. He suffered illness while encamped on the farther side of the Syr Daria and died at Farab on 17 February , [78] before ever reaching the Chinese border.

The first, his son Jahangir , died of illness in


Ameer Taimoor by Harold Lamb free pdf download



Ameer Taimoor History By Harold Lamb Pdf Free Download


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